The hope is that a universal vaccine would be effective against multiple subtypes of influenza, eliminating the need to update the vaccine each year. This would result in huge cost savings and perhaps improve the efficacy of annual vaccination, reducing the healthcare burden associated with influenza. In the short term now, though, researchers can “use the B cell sequencing information… identified to quickly and accurately measure immune responses among participants in future influenza vaccine trials,” the authors noted in a NIAID statement released in conjunction with the publication of their findings.
In a review
published in May in the journal Future Virology
, South Korean researchers Yo Han Jang and Baik Lin Seong note that influenza A viruses are “broadly categorized into subtypes according to their surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.” The 18 hemagglutinin subtypes are further classified into 2 distinct phylogenetic groups. Although agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention typically recommend the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase viral surface antigens for inclusion in the annual vaccine, the South Korean authors state that “the empirical nature of the recommendations, which basically amount to an educated guess [and] inevitably results in occasional vaccine mismatches.”
“The influenza virus, due to its segmented nature and intrinsically high mutation rate, is prone to frequent antigenic drifts and shifts, leading to annual episodes, as well as occasional pandemic outbreaks,” they write. “Vaccination has been considered the most effective way to control the influenza virus, but the seasonal influenza vaccines currently available only provide strain-specific protection. Developing a flu vaccine that offers universal protection against all influenza strains is thus tantamount to the quest for the Holy Grail.”
Brian P. Dunleavy is a medical writer and editor based in New York. His work has appeared in numerous healthcare-related publications. He is the former editor of Infectious Disease Special Edition
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