Specifically, with antifungal stewardship, there are certain areas for interventions that may differ from antibiotic stewardship to reduce antifungal resistance and selection pressure. For example, appropriate indications for antifungal prophylaxis and treatment should be evidence-based and selected in clinical situations that are efficacious, while avoiding use where fungal or mold colonization may occur.20
Only 55% of physicians were able to correctly differentiate between infection and colonization in a survey of 200 providers, including those from medicine, pediatrics, and surgery, implying that there is a need for education on appropriate antifungal use.27
Both antimicrobial and antifungal stewardships prioritize education as a core element.18,20
Pharmacists have an expertise in pharmacotherapy that is pertinent for effective therapeutic drug monitoring, especially in optimizing antifungals with pharmacokinetic variability.28
However, there are also limitations in availability of laboratory assays and validated efficacy and safety data on drug monitoring.
Overall, there is a great need for establishing antifungal stewardships in institutions with significant antifungal use due to the growing resistance, substantial costs, and potential to optimize outcomes. This is a collaborative effort that requires the teamwork of specialists in dynamic areas among physicians, pharmacists, and microbiologists, at minimum. The success of antifungal stewardship is defined on institution-specific needs and the epidemiology of the hospital. Documented inappropriate use of antifungals warrants opportunities for improvement and education, as part of the core elements of stewardship. Opportunities include interventions requiring infectious diseases consultation for fungemia, candidemia-care bundles, appropriate use of diagnostic biomarkers, therapeutic drug monitoring, and retrospective audit and feedback.
Dr. Vu is a Clinical Assistant Professor at Chicago State University and is in clinical practice at Rush University Children's Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. She completed her PGY-2 residency in infectious diseases at Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy. She is an active member of ACCP, IDSA, and SIDP.
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- Morgan J, Meltzer MI, Plikaytis BD, et al. Excess mortality, hospital stay, and cost due to candidemia: a case-control study using data from population-basted candidemia surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(6):540-547. doi: 10.1086/502581.
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- Gudlaugsson O, Gillespie S, Lee K, et al. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(9):1172-1177. doi: 10.1086/378745.
- Pappas PG, Res JH, Lee J, et al. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37(5):634-643. doi: 10.1086/376906.
- Pfaller M, Neofytos D, Diekema D, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 3648 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH Alliance) registry, 2004-2008. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;74(4):323-331. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.10.003.
- Pfaller MA, Moet GJ, Messer SA, et al. Candida bloodstream infections comparison of species distributions and antifungal resistance patterns in community-onset and nosocomial isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2008-2009. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;55(2):561-566. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01079-10.
- Valerio M, Rodriguez-Gonzalez CG, Muñoz P, et al. Evaluation of antifungal use in a tertiary care institution: antifungal stewardship urgently needed. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69(7):1993-1999. doi: 10.1093/jac/dku053.
- Nivoix Y, Launoy A, Lutun P, et al. Adherence to recommendations for the use of antifungal agents in a tertiary care hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67(10):2506-2513. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks256.
- Vallabhaneni S, Kallen A, Tsay S, et al. Investigation of the first seven reported cases of Candida auris, a globally emerging invasive, multidrug-resistant fungus – United States, May 2013–August 2016. MMRW Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Nov 11; 65(44): 1234-1237.
- Cleveland AA, Harrison LH, Farley MM, et al. Declining incidence of candidemia and the shifting epidemiology of Candida resistance in two US metropolitan areas, 2008-2013: results from population-based surveillance. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0120452. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120452.
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- Vallabhaneni S, Cleveland AA, Farley MM, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for echinocandin nonsusceptible Candida glabrata bloodstream infections. Data from a large multisite population-based candidemia surveillance program, 2008-2014. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2(4):ofv163. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofv163.
- Verweij PE, Chowdhary A, Melchers WJ, Meis JF. Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: can we retain the clinical use of mold-active antifungal azoles? Clin Infect Dis. 2016; 62(3):362-368. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ885.
- Snelders E, L van der Lee HA, Kuijpers J, et al. Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergilus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism. PLoS Med. 2008;5(11):e219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050219.
- Camps SM, van der Linden JW, Li Y, et al. Rapid induction of multiple resistance mechanisms in Aspergillus fumigatus during azole therapy: a case study and review of the literature. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56(1):10-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.05088-11.
- The Joint Commission. Approved: new antimicrobial stewardship standard. Joint Commission Perspectives. 2016;36(6):1-8. https://jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/New_Antimicrobial_Stewardship_Standard.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2017.
- Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. http://cdc.gov/getsmart/healthcare/implementation/core-elements.html. Accessed May 20, 2017.
- Barlam TF, Cosgrove SE, Abbo LM, et al. Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program: guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):e51-e77. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw118.
- Munoz Muñoz P, Valerio M, Vena A, Bouza E. Antifungal stewardship in daily practice and health economic implications. Mycoses. 2015;58(suppl 2):14-25. doi: 10.1111/myc.12329.
- Micallef C, Aliyu SH, Santos R, Brown NM, Rosembert D, Enoch DA. Introduction of an antifungal stewardship programme targeting high-cost antifungals at a tertiary hospital in Cambridge, England. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015; 70(6): 1908-1911. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkv040.
- Reed EE, West JE, Keating EA, et al. Improving the management of candidemia through antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014;78(2):157-161. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.11.012.
- Jones T, Wilson D, Sarubbi C, et al. Impact of mandatory infectious diseases consultation on fungemia management at a large academic medical center. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016;3(suppl 1):1036. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofw172.739.
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- A B-D-glucan driven antifungal stewardship approach for invasive candidiasis. clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03090334. Updated March 30, 2017. Accessed May 28, 2017.
- Antworth A, Collins CD, Kunapuli A, et al. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program comprehensive care bundle on management of candidemia. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33(2):137-143. doi: 10.1002/phar.1186.
- Valerio M, Muñoz P, Rodríguez-González C, et al. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2015;33(4):221-227. doi: 10.1016/j.eimc.2014.04.016.
- Andes D, Pascual A, Marchetti O. Antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring: established and emerging indications. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53(1):24-34. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00705-08.