Seeking to improve the nation’s health and safety as swiftly and broadly as possible, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been targeting several high-burden issues—deemed “Winnable Battles”—in which it could make the greatest impact.
Evidence-based interventions have enabled strides in public health priorities that the agency highlights in its recently released “CDC Winnable Battles Final Report
.” Of the six “battles,” three pertain to infectious diseases: food safety, healthcare-associated infections, and HIV.
“There has been substantial progress in many of the infectious disease-related goals,” said Amesh Adalja, MD, a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), who offered an outside opinion on the report for Contagion
. But more progress is needed to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections—one area in which CDC did not meet its goals.
The reasons behind these results are sometimes tough to explain. “Infectious diseases don’t have simple causal mechanisms,” said Dr. Adalja, an infectious disease specialist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. “There are multiple factors that play into what the incidence and prevalence may be.”
In the realm of food safety, infections due to Escherichia coli
) O157 dropped 44% from 1998 to 2015, but there is still room for improvement in decreasing infections due to E. coli
, and other food-borne germs. Each year, 1 in 6 Americans becomes ill from consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, and the associated medical and industry costs surpass $15.5 billion.
“Food-borne illness is a common, costly, and preventable public health problem,” said Michael Beach, PhD, deputy director of CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases. “Making food safety a ‘Winnable Battle’ has helped the team advance more proactive and comprehensive efforts.”
A mere 10% reduction in food-borne infections would spare about 5 million Americans from sickness each year. Salmonella
infections lead to more hospitalizations and deaths than any other bacteria detected in food, amounting to approximately $365 million in direct annual medical costs.
CDC’s adoption of whole genome sequencing for Listeria
outbreaks has resulted in a 50% decline in the median number of these illnesses per outbreak. In fiscal year 2015, outbreak investigations recognized caramel apples and ice cream
as two food sources of this severe infection. Until then, neither of these culprits had been perceived as major contributors to Listeria
. Industries are implementing more rigorous control measures in response to these findings.
“We are now starting to use the lessons learned from the Listeria
work to bring these cutting-edge technologies to bear on combatting additional food-borne germs like Salmonella
,” Dr. Beach said.
Novel germs still appear on the horizon and outsmart researchers. “There are always new and emerging bacteria, toxins and antibiotic resistance that can be a challenge to food safety,” he added. “Food production and distribution is more widespread than ever before, which means contaminated food can be sent all over the country.”
To help curb the spread of food-borne infections, Dr. Beach would recommend that healthcare providers quickly obtain samples from sick people and forward to laboratories for advanced testing. They also should notify the local or state health department rapidly of suspected outbreaks.
Meanwhile, it would be wise to inform patients and caretakers of those who are older than 65 years, children younger than age 5, people with compromised immune systems and pregnant women that they are at a higher risk for food-borne illnesses, Dr. Beach said.