Rotavirus, a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis, most commonly plagues infants and children. The virus also accounts for 37% of diarrhea-related deaths among children under the age of 5, and so researchers are scrambling for new ways to reduce its devastating death toll.
Now, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Epicentre, Paris, are sharing the results of a new study that shows a new rotavirus vaccine, dubbed BRV-PV, has proven to be 66.7% effective in preventing severe gastroenteritis caused by the virus. The study
is published in the New England Journal of Medicine
Rotavirus can be easily transmitted
through contact with contaminated hands, toys, food, or water, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In fact, the virus can spread before and after children “become sick with diarrhea.”
However, rotavirus is unique from other causes of diarrhea in that any “improvements” that are made pertaining to water, sanitation, and hygiene, are moot; the efforts will not work when it comes to preventing transmission. The researchers stress that this makes vaccination against the rotavirus even more imperative to preventing diarrhea-associated complications, or even death.
A past study
reported that in 2008, rotavirus was responsible for a staggering 453,000 deaths, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. In that study, researchers stressed the need to “accelerate the introduction of vaccines” in those areas where rotavirus burden is highest. Researchers from Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health stress that in these areas, where healthcare access is low and rotavirus prevalence is high, not only is a safe and effective vaccine needed, but it also needs to be affordable.
Two rotavirus vaccines
are currently available in the United States: RotaTeq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1). However, the researchers from Harvard note that there are two problems when it comes to these vaccines: (1) they are expensive and (2) they must remain refrigerated “throughout the supply chain.” When it comes to administering vaccines in developing countries, such as Niger, where resources are limited, refrigeration can be an issue.