A new report on the cases of two infants who contracted Legionnaires’ disease during water births highlights the dangers of the bacteria, and has prompted new efforts for more safety education on water-immersion delivery.
Although there are about 6,000 reported cases of Legionnaires’ disease
in the United States each year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notes that many such infections go undiagnosed and unreported. The disease is caused by the Legionella
bacterium, a pathogen found in freshwater sources that can also contaminate hot tubs, showers and faucets, cooling towers, public decorative fountains, hot water tanks, and the plumbing systems of large facilities. The bacteria thrive and multiply best in warm tap water
, and spread to humans when they breathe in small droplets of Legionella
-contaminated water, leading to a respiratory condition called Legionellosis. This can present as a mild flu-like condition called Pontiac disease or the more serious lung infection known as Legionnaires’ disease. Fewer than 5% of people exposed to an outbreak source go on to develop Legionnaires’ disease, though the condition is fatal in about 10% of cases.
Individuals with chronic lung disease, weak immune systems, cancer, and underlying illnesses—along with smokers and those age 50 years or older—are at greater risk of getting sick from Legionella
exposure. However, a new report
recently published in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
examined 2 cases involving infants who contracted Legionella
infections during water births that occurred in Arizona in 2016. Both infants were delivered at home in birthing tubs—shallow pools used for laboring in water. The first case was reported in January 2016 and the second case was reported in April 2016. Both cases were reported to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH).
The first infant was taken to the emergency room the day after delivery with symptoms including severe respiratory distress. Although the infant was diagnosed with a congenital heart disease, the doctors discovered the presence of Legionella pneumophila
in the infant’s lungs after further testing. Through their investigation, the MCDPH found that the birthing tub used in the delivery was new and cleaned with vinegar and water before being filled with municipal tap water using a new water hose. The mother delivered the infant within an hour of entering the tub and the infant was not noted to have aspirated any water.
The second infant was taken to the emergency room 3 days after delivery after coming down with a high fever and signs of possible pneumonia. Upon evaluation of urine and respiratory tract samples taken from the infant, doctors found Legionella pneumophila.
In this case, the mother delivered the infant in a rented jetted Jacuzzi hot tub, which was filled using a new hose. The water had been kept at 98.0°F for 1 week before the delivery. During the birth, the mother labored outside the tub and entered the tub for delivery only.