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Severity of Zika Threat Still Open for Debate—US Health Officials Not Taking Any Chances

With 43 “local” cases of Zika virus infection now reported in Florida, and as far north as St. Petersburg, health officials in other Gulf states are ramping up responses in the event of potential outbreaks—even as there remains some disagreement as to the true nature of the threat of local transmission in the United States.
A release from the Florida Department of Health on August 24, noted that there are already more than 550 confirmed cases of the mosquito-borne virus in the state. Although most (523) of these cases have involved people who have traveled to areas where the virus has been rampant for more than a year, such as Brazil and the Caribbean, or have acquired the virus via sexual transmission from people who have traveled to these areas, some 43 cases have been traced to mosquito bites sustained within the Sunshine State. To date, nearly 4,000 Floridians have been tested for the virus.
Florida officials have been quick to point out that “one case does not mean ongoing active transmission is taking place.” However, the fact that Aedes aegypti mosquitos carrying the virus have been active in the state this summer has not been a complete surprise. Research published in the journal PLOS Currents/Outbreaks in April noted that areas from Florida to Texas are “at the nexus of high seasonal suitability” for the mosquitos associated with Zika transmission, and on August 21 Anthony Fauci, MD, said that Louisiana could see Aedes aegypti as a result of standing water—the ideal breeding ground for some mosquito species—remaining from recent flooding in the state.
Health officials from Alabama did not respond to requests for comment at press time on August 24. However, Liz Sharlot, director of communications for the Mississippi Department of Health told Contagion that her state has seen 17 cases of Zika so far, and that all were travel-related. At present, she added, ongoing vector surveillance programs in the state have not revealed the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitos, which haven’t been identified there since the 1980s. Still, surveillance has confirmed the presence of Aedes albopictus mosquitos, which have also been linked with Zika transmission.
“So, of course, we are concerned,” Sharlot said. “The Mississippi State Department of Health continues to work with all of its partners regarding education and prevention.  We have an ongoing campaign including social media, cinema, posters, and airport displays, as well as information passed through pharmacies, with a major emphasis on pregnant women and our Hispanic population.”

Influenza A (H3N2) has caused most of the illnesses in this severe flu season, but influenza B is becoming increasingly responsible for more infections as the flu season continues to hit the United States.