Lyophilized CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora, PaxVax) is the only vaccine approved in the United States to prevent cholera
. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the vaccine
in 2016 for adults between the ages of 18 and 64 who are traveling to areas of active cholera transmission.
Vaxchora is a single-dose oral live vaccine suspension that should be administered at least 10 days before traveling to a cholera-affected area. Patients who have a history of a severe allergic reaction (eg anaphylaxis) to any ingredient in the vaccine or to a previous cholera vaccine, should not receive it. The vaccine may be shed in the stool for at least 7 days, and there is a potential to transmit the vaccine strain to nonvaccinated individuals, especially patients who are immunocompromised.
Patients should avoid eating or drinking for 60 minutes before and after oral ingestion of the vaccine.
Additionally, administration should be avoided with systemic antibiotics, because they may reduce the efficacy of the vaccine.
Vaxchora should not be given to patients who have received oral or parenteral antibiotics in the previous 14 days; however, it is unknown how long individuals should wait after finishing an antibiotic
to receive the vaccine.
Evidence suggests that the antimalarial medication chloroquine can decrease Vaxchora efficacy.
Therefore, it is recommended to administer the vaccine at least 10 days before starting chloroquine.
The most common adverse effects occur within 7 days post-vaccination and include tiredness, headache, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, appetite loss, and diarrhea. Vaxchora should be consumed within 15 minutes of reconstitution.
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued updated recommendations in May 2017 for the use of Vaxchora. The vaccine is recommended for adults 18 to 64 who are traveling from the United States to an area of active cholera transmission, which ACIP defines as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country with endemic or epidemic cholera, including areas with cholera activity within the past year. The vaccine is not routinely recommended for travelers who are not visiting areas of active cholera transmission.
Cholera is a disease spread by drinking water or eating food contaminated with cholera bacteria. Severe cholera is characterized by large amounts of watery diarrhea, typically described as “rice-water stool” and may include other symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Cholera is rare in the United States, and most US cases occur among travelers to countries where the disease is active.
Evidence suggests that Vaxchora reduces the risk of severe diarrhea by 90% at 10 days after vaccination and by 80% at 3 months post-vaccination. There are no recommendations for booster doses after the 3-month period, and this is an area that should be further studied. Other cholera prevention tips include cooking food safely, drinking and using safe water, frequent handwashing with safe water and soap, and safe clean up.
An earlier version of this article appeared as, “What Pharmacists Should Know About the Oral Cholera Travel Vaccine Vaxchora
,” on PharmacyTimes.com.
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