Adult vaccination updates have always been an annual occurrence, with many anxiously awaiting updates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). More frequently, however, as new vaccines become available, an increase in emerging data and more complex recommendations lead to provider confusion. Registration and follow-up studies of these new products or formulations have provided important insight into vaccine effectiveness and decision making based on high-risk populations. Additionally, local and national outbreaks have driven more awareness in health care professionals and the lay public about the importance of protection. Ultimately, many still depend on the specific guidance from the ACIP and/or the CDC for vaccine recommendations. In the interest of brevity, the focus here will be on updated adult immunization recommendations for meningococcal disease, influenza, and pneumococcal disease, including some details of the data as support.
The general adult vaccination schedule with a special population supplement is published each year in February (Table 1
(The special population and notable comorbidities are detailed in Table 2
.) This past February, notable changes included the removal of live activated influenza vaccine as an influenza vaccine option for any population and removal of egg allergy as a contraindication for influenza vaccination. Meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine subtype ACWY vaccination is now recommended for patients with HIV infection. One of the newer meningococcal subtype B vaccines is now recommended for either anatomical or functional asplenia or persistent complement component deficiencies, including those receiving eculizumab.